Descriptions–Trees

TREES PEOPLE HAVE ORDERED

 Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)

 General Description

  • A hardy, native, drought and alkali resistant
  • Medium to large tree

 Form

  • Growth Habit – Variable
  • Crown Height – 35 to 65 feet
  • Crown Width – 30 to 40 feet

 Soils

  • Soil Texture – Adapted to a wide variety of soil textures
  • Soil pH – 6.0 to 8.0

 Cold Hardiness – USDA Zone 2

 Water

  • Can withstand flooding for short periods of time
  • Moderately high drought tolerance

 Light – Full sun

 Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

General Description

  • Fairly straight tree that becomes clear of lower limbs over time.
  • Sometimes called Trembling Aspen

 Form

  • Growth Habit – Trunk has little taper to the tip, rounded crown with brittle branches
  • Crown Height – 25 to 60 feet
  • Crown Width – 20 to 30 feet

 Soils

  • Soil Texture – Prefers sands to loam but tolerates variable soil conditions
  • Soil pH – 5.5 to 8.0

 Cold Hardiness – USDA Zone 1

 Water

  • Needs a moist site to do well
  • Primarily present in areas of high water table, north and east facing slopes, seeps and other moist areas

 Light – Full sun, will not tolerate shade  

Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera)

General Description

  • Native medium to tall tree, loosely pyramidal when young
  • Irregular oval crown when mature
  • Drought stress followed by borer attack often causes decline

 Form

  • Growth Habit – Larger limbs grow upward and smaller branches are more horizontal and flexible
  • Crown Height – 30 to 55 feet
  • Crown Width – 20 to 40 feet

 Soils

  • Soil Texture – Does best on loamy or sandy soils along rivers, lakes or ravines
  • Soil pH – 5.0 to 7.5

 Cold Hardiness – USDA Zone 2

 Water

  • Does best on well-drained, moist sites
  • Does not tolerate drought
  • Similar to aspen in water needs

 Light – Full sun

 Ohio Buckeye (Aesculus glabra)

 General Description

  • Medium-sized tree with an oval to rounded crown.
  • Unique characteristics include palmate compound leaves, terminal candle-like flowers and large globose fruits

 Form

  • Growth Habit – Dense, broad-oblong crowns, becoming rounded with age
  • Crown Height – 20 to 40 feet
  • Crown Width – 20 to 35 feet

 Soils

  • Soil Texture – Adapted to a variety of soils, prefers moist loams
  • Leaf scorch is a problem on dry sites
  • Soil pH – 5.0 to 7.5

 Cold Hardiness – USDA Zone 3

 Water

  • Not drought resistant
  • Needs adequate moisture during drought, or leaf scorch may become a problem

 Light – Full sun

 Siberian Elm (Ulmus pumila)

 General Description

  • Very hardy, fast growing tree with brittle wood which is subject to breakage
  • Extremely susceptible to insect, disease, and herbicide damage

Form

  • Growth Habit – The habit is rather open, with several large ascending branches with flexible, brittle, pendulous branchlets
  • Crown Height – 25 to 50 feet
  • Crown Width – 20 to 40 feet

 Soils

  • Soil Texture – Adapted to almost any soil texture
  • Soil pH – 5.5 to 8.0. Exhibits alkaline and saline tolerance

 Cold Hardiness – USDA Zone 3

 Water

  • Drought tolerant
  • Does not withstand ponding

 Light – Full sun to partial shade

 Common Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)

 General Description

  • Medium-sized tree native to North Dakota
  • A good replacement tree for the American Elm because of its similar form and adaptability
  • Gray, unique stucco-like bark

 Form

  • Growth Habit – Narrow when young, broadening at the top and arching out when mature
  • Crown Height – 40 to 60 feet
  • Crown Width – 25 to 45 feet

 Soils

  • Soil Texture – Performs well on a variety of soils
  • Soil pH – 6.0 to 8.0. Somewhat tolerant to alkaline soils

 Cold Hardiness – USDA Zone 2

 Water

  • Moderately drought tolerant but does best on moist, well-drained sites
  • May compensate for droughty conditions by dropping a portion of the leaves when under stress

 Light – Full sun to partial shade

 Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa)

 General Description

  • Large long-lived tree on good sites, with stout limbs forming a broad crown at maturity
  • Scrubby forms can be found on very dry sites
  • Difficult to transplant because of a deep taproot
  • Bur Oak is also called Mossycup Oak
  • Once established trees grow one to two feet per year on favorable sites

 Form

  • Growth Habit – Very stout branches, informal spreading to rounded with age
  • Crown Height – 40 to 70 feet
  • Crown Width – 35 to 60 feet

 Soils

  • Soil Texture – Grows best in fertile loam, but will do well in a wide variety of soils
  • Soil pH – 5.5 to 8.0

 Cold Hardiness – USDA Zone 2

 Water

  • Drought tolerant
  • Prefers moist well-drained soils

 Light – Full sun preferred, but is moderately shade tolerant

 Rocky Mountain Juniper (Juniperus scopulorum)

 General Description

  • Small to medium tree
  • Dense pyramidal crown
  • Native to western North Dakota
  • Seedling plantings may exhibit a wide variety of forms
  • Many denser growing cultivars are used as ornamentals

 Form

  • Growth Habit – Variable pyramidal to narrow crowns, normally with numerous long, upward-reaching branches
  • Crown Height – 20 to 40 feet
  • Crown Width – 12 to 20 feet

 Soils

  • Soil Texture – Prefers deep moist well-drained loam, but will tolerate sandy soils
  • Soil pH – 6.0 to 8.0. Tolerates salts and high pH

 Cold Hardiness – USDA Zone 3

 Water – Extremely drought tolerant once established, but likes moist soils

 Light – Full sun

 Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa)

 General Description

  • Large tree native to southwestern North Dakota
  • Pyramidal when young, becoming irregularly-oblong and open-crowned with age

 Form

  • Growth Habit – Pyramidal when young, gradually lose lower limbs as they grow taller and become less regular in shape
  • Crown Height – 50 to 70 feet
  • Crown Width – 25 to 30 feet

 Soils

  • Soil Texture – Grows best on deep, well-drained loam soils, will tolerate sandy soils
  • Soil pH – 6.0 to 8.0. Tolerates saline and alkaline soils

Cold Hardiness – USDA Zone 3

Water

  • Prefers moist, well-drained soils for best growth
  • Tolerates drought
  • Does not tolerate flooding or poorly-drained soils

 Light – Full sun, not shade tolerant

 Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris)

 General Description

  • Medium to large tree
  • Typically pyramidal when young, becoming more rounded and open with age
  • Orange brown peeling bark
  • Bark is relished by porcupines, which can cause extensive damage

 Form

  • Growth Habit – Pyramidal when young, branches thin and form becomes flat to round-topped with age
  • Crown Height – 25 to 50 feet
  • Crown Width – 20 to 35 feet

 Soils

  • Soil Texture – Prefers moist, well-drained soils, but will tolerate drier sites
  • Soil pH – 5.0 to 7.5

 Cold Hardiness – USDA Zone 3

 Water

  • Does not tolerate flooding
  • Not very drought resistant, but requires a well-drained site

 Light – Full sun

 Black Hills Spruce (Picea glauca var. densata)

 General Description

  • Large tree, very dense and pyramidal when young
  • Not as drought tolerant as Colorado Spruce
  • Black Hills Spruce is a naturally occurring variety of white spruce native to South Dakota. Better adapted than White Spruce (Picea glauca) which is native in the eastern United States, as far west as Minnesota

 Form

  • Growth Habit – Long stout branches from ground up form a broad pyramidal to conical crown, compact ascending branches, denser growth form than species
  • Crown Height – 30 to 60 feet
  • Crown Width – 15 to 25 feet

 Soils

  • Soil Texture – Grows best on moist loams
  • Soil pH – 4.0 to 7.5

 Cold Hardiness – USDA Zone 2

 Water

  • Fairly drought resistant
  • Needs additional moisture during droughts

 Light – Full sun

Colorado (Blue) Spruce (Picea pungens)

General Description

  • Broad, dense, pyramidal tree with stiff branches horizontal to the ground
  • Native to intermountain states of the west
  • Choice specimen tree

 Form

  • Growth Habit – Branching is broad and dense, with branches extending to the ground
  • Crown Height – 30 to 65 feet
  • Crown Width – 15 to 25 feet

 Soils

  • Soil Texture – Performs best on moist, well-drained loams
  • Soil pH – 6.0 to 7.5

 Cold Hardiness – USDA Zone 2

 Water

  • Does not tolerate flooding
  • Prefers moist areas, but is the most drought tolerant of the spruces

 Light – Full sun, does not tolerate shade

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